MORE BELIEVING SCIENTISTS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY

MORE BELIEVING SCIENTISTS

The profiles already published on Max Doubt barely scratch the surface of modern scientists of faith. This link supplies hundreds more of which a few are listed below:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Christian_thinkers_in_science

You can also google lists of Catholic scientists, Christian Nobel laureates, Quaker, Jesuit, Jewish and Muslim scientists. Here we list only twentieth century names, in case the reader was tempted to believe that science normally and increasingly has been able to disprove faith.

During the nineteenth century, the practice of science became professionalized and institutionalized in ways that continued and grew through the 20th century. As the role of scientific knowledge grew in society, it became incorporated with many aspects of the functioning of nation-states. At the same time, some famous debates moved the realm of religion to the private sphere, so it is getting harder to find out what the scientists actually believed. Sometimes a claim is disproved by further research, but I offer this list in good faith (boom boom). Happy to hear of any others or of any disclaimers.

TWENTIETH CENTURY

George Stokes (1819–1903): A minister’s son, he wrote a book on Natural Theology. He was also one of the Presidents of the Royal Society and made contributions to Fluid dynamics.[162][163]

George Salmon (1819–1904): He won the Copley Medal for his mathematical works. In theology his book An Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books of the New Testament was widely read and he wrote rebuttals to John Henry Newman tracts.[164]

Henry Baker Tristram (1822–1906): A founding member of the British Ornithologists’ Union. His publications included The Natural History of the Bible (1867) and The Fauna and Flora of Palestine (1884).[165]

Enoch Fitch Burr (1818–1907): Astronomer and Congregational Church pastor who lectured extensively on the relationship between science and religion. He also wrote Ecce Coelum: or Parish Astronomy in 1867. He once stated that "an undevout astronomer is mad" and held a strong belief in extraterrestrial life.[166][167]

Pierre Duhem (1861–1916): He worked on Thermodynamic potentials and wrote histories advocating that the Roman Catholic Church helped advance science.[169][170]

Georg Cantor (1845–1918): Lutheran who wrote on religious topics and had an interest in Medieval theology. Revolutionized the mathematical notion of infinity by the introduction of set theory.[171]

Lord Rayleigh (1842–1919): English physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904. He also discovered the phenomenon now called Rayleigh scattering, explaining why the sky is blue, and predicted the existence of the surface waves now known as Rayleigh waves.[172]

James Britten (1846–1924): Botanist who was heavily involved in the Catholic Truth Society.[174][175]

Charles Doolittle Walcott (1850–1927): Walcott was a paleontologist, most notable for his discovery of the Burgess Shale of British Columbia. The late Stephen Jay Gould said that Walcott, "discoverer of the Burgess Shale fossils, was a convinced Darwinian and an equally firm Christian, who believed that God had ordained natural selection to construct a history of life according to His plans and purposes."[176]

Johannes Reinke (1849–1931), German phycologist and naturalist who founded the German Botanical Society. An opposer of Darwinism and the secularization of science, he wrote Kritik der Abstammungslehre (Critique of the theory of evolution), (1920), andNaturwissenschaft, Weltanschauung, Religion, (Science, philosophy, religion), (1923). He was a devout Lutheran.[177]

William H. Bragg (1862-1942) –British physicist, chemist, and mathematician. Nobel Prize in 1915

"From religion comes a man’s purpose; from science, his power to achieve it. Sometimes people ask if religion and science are not opposed to one another. They are: in the sense that the thumb and fingers of my hands are opposed to one another. It is an opposition by means of which anything can be grasped." Dmitri Egorov (1869–1931): Russian mathematician who made significant contributions to the broader areas of differential geometry. He was an Imiaslavie who defended religion during the Soviet era. In 1930 the Soviets arrested and imprisoned him as a "religious sectarian." He died of a hunger strike in protest.[178]

William Williams Keen (1837–1932), first brain surgeon in the United States, and a prominent surgical pathologist who served as President of the American Medical Association. He also wrote I believe in God and in evolution.[179]

Ronald Ross (1857–1932): Ross was a British doctor who received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria. He was a believer in God and most likely an Anglican.[180]

Mihajlo Pupin (1858–1935): Serbian-American physicist, chemist, and inventor. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography in 1924. His The New Reformation: From Physical to Spiritual Realities concerns religion and spirituality. He also wrote the forward to Science & Religion: A Symposium.[181]

Hugo Obermaier, 1877-1946, Germand paleontologist and Catholic priest, one of the foremost experts of his time in Prehistoric art.

Pavel Florensky (1882–1937): Russian Orthodox priest who wrote a book on Dielectrics and wrote of imaginary numbers having a relationship to the Kingdom of God.[184]

Guglielmo Marconi (1874–1937): Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian inventor, known for his pioneering work on long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi’s law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics. Marconi was baptized as Catholic[185] and personally introduced in 1931 the first radio broadcast of a Pope, Pius XI, announcing at the microphone: "With the help of God, who places so many mysterious forces of nature at man’s disposal, I have been able to prepare this instrument which will give to the faithful of the entire world the joy of listening to the voice of the Holy Father".[186]

J. J. Thomson (1856–1940): J.J. Thompson, or Sir Joseph John "J. J." Thomson, was a British physicist who discovered electrons and isotopes. He won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1906 and was President of the Royal Society from 1915 to 1920. Thompson is described as "a regular communicant in the Anglican Church. In addition, he showed an active interest in the Trinity Mission at Camberwell. With respect to his private devotional life, J. J. would invariably practice kneeling for daily prayer, and read his Bible before retiring each night."[188]

Eberhard Dennert (1861–1942), German naturalist and botanist who founded the Kepler Union, a group of German intellectuals who strongly opposed Haeckel‘s Monist League and Darwin’s theory.[189] A Lutheran, he wrote Vom Sterbelager des Darwinismus, which had an authorized English translation under the name At The Deathbed of Darwinism (1904).

William Henry Bragg (1862–1942): Sir Bragg was a British physicist, chemist, and mathematician who uniquely shared a Nobel Prize with his son William Lawrence Bragg the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics: "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays". Bragg was Anglican and had a license to preach at his local church.[190]

George Washington Carver (1864–1943): George Washington Carver was an American scientist, botanist, educator, and inventor. Carver believed he could have faith both in God and science and integrated them into his life. He testified on many occasions that his faith in Jesus was the only mechanism by which he could effectively pursue and perform the art of science.[191]

Arthur Eddington (1882–1944): Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington was a British astrophysicist of the early 20th century. He was also a philosopher of science and a popularizer of science. The Eddington limit, the natural limit to the luminosity of stars, or the radiation generated by accretion onto a compact object, is named in his honor. He is famous for his work regarding the theory of relativity. Eddington was a lifelong Quaker, and gave the Gifford Lectures in 1927.[192]

Alexis Carrel (1873–1944): French surgeon and biologist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1912 for pioneering vascular suturing techniques.[193]

Charles Glover Barkla (1877–1944): British physicist, and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1917 for his work in X-ray spectroscopy and related areas in the study of X-rays (Roentgen rays).[194]

John Ambrose Fleming (1849–1945): In science he is noted for the Right-hand rule and work on vacuum tubes. He also won the Hughes Medal. In religious activities he was President of the Victoria Institute, and preached at St Martin-in-the-Fields.[195][196]

Philipp Lenard (1862–1947): German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties. He was also an active proponent of the Nazi ideology.[198][199]

Edward Arthur Milne (1896–1950): British astrophysicist and mathematicians who proposed the Milne model and had a Moon crater named for him. In addition he won several awards including the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. His last book wasModern Cosmology and the Christian Idea of God.[200]

Robert Millikan (1868–1953): The second son of Reverend Silas Franklin Millikan, he wrote about the reconciliation of science and religion in books like Evolution in Science and Religion. He won the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physics.[201]

Charles Stine (1882–1954): The son of a minister who was VP of DuPont. In religion he wrote A Chemist and His Bible and as a chemist he won the Perkin Medal.[202]

E. T. Whittaker (1873–1956): Converted to Catholicism in 1930 and member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. His 1946 Donnellan Lecture was entitled on Space and Spirit. Theories of the Universe and the Arguments for the Existence of God. He also received the Copley Medal and had written on Mathematical physics before conversion.[203]

Johannes Stark (1874–1957): German physicist who was closely involved with the Deutsche Physik movement under the Nazi regime. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1919 for his "discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields" (the latter is known as the Stark effect).[204][205]

Milutin Milanković (1879–1958): Serbian geophysicist noted for Milankovitch cycles and the Revised Julian calendar some Orthodox churches use.[206][207]

Max von Laue (1879–1960): German experimental physicist. A practising Christian, he asked that his epitaph read that he died trusting firmly in God’s mercy. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.[208][209][210]

Arthur Compton (1892–1962): He won a Nobel Prize in Physics. He also was a deacon in the Baptist Church and wrote an article in Christianity Takes a Stand that supported the controversial idea of the United States maintaining the peace through a nuclear-armed air force.[211][212]

Ronald Fisher (1890–1962): English statistician, evolutionary biologist and geneticist. He preached sermons and published articles in church magazines.[213]

Victor Francis Hess (1883–1964): Austrian-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1936 for the discovery of cosmic rays.[214][215] He wrote on the topic of science and religion in his article "My Faith".[216]

Georges Lemaître (1894–1966): Roman Catholic priest who was first to propose the Big Bang theory.[217]

Lise Meitner (1878–1968): Austrian, later Swedish, physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics. Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize. She was born into a Jewish family and converted to Lutheranism as an adult.[218]

John Boyd Orr (1880–1971): Sir John Boyd Orr from 1935 to 1949, was a Scottish doctor and biologist who received the Nobel Peace Prize for his scientific research into nutrition and his work as the first Director-General of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. He was the co-founder and the first President (1960–1971) of the World Academy of Art and Science. In Orr’s early education, the school he attended gave him a good knowledge of the Bible, which stayed with him for the rest of his life.[219] For example, Orr concluded his 1949 acceptance speech Nobel Prize with the discussion of war and religion: "Let the churches which believe in the eternal and unchangeable truth proclaimed by Jesus of Nazareth redouble their efforts for peace so that we in our day may see the beginning of the building of the new and better world which our children shall inherit."[220]

David Lack (1910–1973): Director of the Edward Grey Institute of Field Ornithology and convert who wrote Evolutionary Theory and Christian Belief in 1957. He is in part known for his study of the genus Euplectes.[221]

Clyde Cowan (1919–1974): American physicist, the co-discoverer of the neutrino along with Frederick Reines. The discovery was made in 1956 in the neutrino experiment. Frederick Reines received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1995 in both their names.[222]

Charles Coulson (1910–1974): Methodist who wrote Science and Christian Belief in 1955. In 1970 he won the Davy Medal.[223]

George R. Price (1922–1975): An American population geneticist who while a strong atheist converted to Christianity. He went on to write commentaries on the New Testament and dedicated portions of his life to helping the poor.[224]

Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900–1975): Russian Orthodox geneticist who criticized young Earth creationism in an essay, "Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution," and argued that science and faith did not conflict.[225][226]

Werner Heisenberg (1901–1976): German theoretical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics, nuclear physics and quantum field theory. He was a practising Lutheran.[227][228]

Wernher von Braun (1912–1977): Braun was "one of the most important rocket developers and champions of space exploration during the period between the 1930s and the 1970s."[230] He was a Lutheran who as a youth and young man had little interest in religion. But as an adult he developed a firm belief in the Lord and in an the afterlife. He was pleased to have opportunities to speak to peers (and anybody else who would listen) about his faith and Biblical beliefs.[231]

Kurt Gödel (1906–1978): An Austrian mathematician, logician, and philosopher, Godel is known for what are called Gödel’s incompleteness theorems, Gödel’s completeness theorem, among other things. Godel was baptized Lutheran, and remained a believer in God his whole life.[232] He believed firmly in an afterlife, stating: "Of course this supposes that there are many relationships which today’s science and received wisdom haven’t any inkling of. But I am convinced of this [the afterlife], independently of any theology." It is "possible today to perceive, by pure reasoning" that it "is entirely consistent with known facts." "If the world is rationally constructed and has meaning, then there must be such a thing [as an afterlife]."[233] He also developed Gödel’s ontological proof for the existence of God, which was published after his death.

Pascual Jordan (1902–1980): German theoretical and mathematical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. He contributed much to the mathematical form of matrix mechanics, and developed canonical anticommutation relations for fermions.[234][235]

Henry Eyring (1901–1981): American chemist known for developing the Eyring equation. Also a Latter-Day Saint whose interactions with LDS President Joseph Fielding Smith on science and faith are a part of LDS history.[236][237]

Sewall Wright (1889–1988): American geneticist known for his influential work on evolutionary theory and also for his work on path analysis. He was a practising Unitarian.[239]

William G. Pollard (1911–1989): Anglican priest who wrote Physicist and Christian. In addition he worked on the Manhattan Project and for years served as the executive director of Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies.[240]

Frederick Rossini (1899–1990): An American noted for his work in chemical thermodynamics. In science he received the Priestley Medal and the National Medal of Science. An example of the second medal is pictured. As a Catholic he received the Laetare Medal of the University of Notre Dame. He was dean of the College of Science at Notre Dame from 1960 to 1971, a position he may have taken partly due to his faith.[241][242]

Aldert van der Ziel (1910–1991): He researched Flicker noise and has the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers named an award for him. He also was a conservative Lutheran who wrote The Natural Sciences and the Christian Message.[243]

Jérôme Lejeune (1926–1994): French pediatrician and geneticist known for research into chromosome abnormalities, particularly Down syndrome. He was the first President of the Pontifical Academy for Life and has been named a "Servant of God."[244][245]

Alonzo Church (1903–1995): American mathematician and logician who made major contributions to mathematical logic and the foundations of theoretical computer science. He was a lifelong member of the Presbyterian church.[246]

Ernest Walton (1903–1995): Irish physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1951 for his work with John Cockcroft with "atom-smashing" experiments done at Cambridge University in the early 1930s, and so became the first person in history to artificially split the atom, thus ushering the nuclear age. He spoke on science and faith topics.[247]

Nevill Francis Mott (1905–1996): Mott, an Anglican, was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist (1977) known for explaining the effect of light on a photographic emulsion."Science can have a purifying effect on religion, freeing it from beliefs of a pre-scientific age and helping us to a truer conception of God. At the same time, I am far from believing that science will ever give us the answers to all our questions."

Mary Celine Fasenmyer (1906–1996): Member of the Sisters of Mercy known for Sister Celine’s polynomials. Her work was also important to WZ Theory.[249]

John Eccles (1903–1997): A Nobel laureate and neurophysiologist who was a devout theist and a practicing Catholic.[250]

Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) –English mathematician and astronomer.

"A commonsense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question." Derek Barton (1918–1998): Barton was a British organic chemist who in 1969 shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry." Barton, a Christian, most likely was an Anglican.[251]

Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921–1999): Arthur Shawlow was an American physicist who is best remembered for his work on lasers, for which he shared the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shawlow was a "fairy Orthodox Protestant."[252] In an interview, he commented regarding God: "I find a need for God in the universe and in my own life."[253]

Carlos Chagas Filho (1910–2000): Neuroscientist who headed the Pontifical Academy of Sciences for 16 years. He studied the Shroud of Turin and his "the Origin of the Universe", "the Origin of Life", and "the Origin of Man" involved an understanding between Catholicism and Science. He was from Rio de Janeiro.[254]

Erwin Schroedinger (1887-1961) –Austrian physicist, awarded Nobel prize in 1933 “I am very astonished that the scientific picture of the real world around me is very deficient. It gives a lot of factual information, puts all our experiences in a magnificently consistent order, but is ghastly silent about all and sundry that is really near to our heart, that really matters to us. It cannot tell us a word about red and blue, bitter and sweet, physical pain and physical delight; it knows nothing of beautiful and ugly, good or bad, god and eternity."

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